An approach that is driven by enquiry, reflection and collaboration. It involves staff in studying aspects of practice in their schools, using different forms of evidence to challenge their thinking and to stimulate their creativity.
今天的歐美學者亦將學校改進理念與在校發展「集體領導」（collective leadership, e.g. Leithwood & Jantzi, 2011），或稱「教師領導」（teacher leadership, e.g. Frost, 2012; Harris & Muijs, 2005）連上關係。台灣學者吳清山（2004）從他的研究指出，學校從事創新經營，推行策略可包括：一、校長積極倡導革新；二、形塑學校為學習型組織，塑造學習文化；三、建立學校人才庫，善用學校人力資源；四、鼓勵成員提出創意，作為校務推動參考；五、提供各項充分資源，以利創新經營推動；六、觀摩標竿學校校務經營，激發革新動力。 他所提出的形塑學校為學習型組織、革新動力及人才庫和如何激發革新動力等的理念，基本上便是 Gray（2005）所倡議的「改革執行力量」。不過，他提出改革須具創意及創新意念，亦代表了新一派的改革特色。
The basis of a differential approach to school improvement requires an understanding of the concept of ‘capacity’, the various growth states of schools and the innovations and interventions best suited to schools at different stages of their development.（Hopkins, 2001:15)
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Barth, R. (1990). Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Gray, J. (2005). “Some issues and problems in evaluating changes and improvements in ‘Low-performing’ schools”, in P. Clark (ed.), Improving school in Difficulty, pp. 81-93.
Frost, D. (2012). From professional development to system change: Teacher leadership and innovation. Professional Development in Education, 38 (2) 205-227.
Harris, A. (2001). “Contemporary perspectives on school effectiveness and school improvement”, in A. Harris & N. Bennett (eds), School effectiveness and school improvement: alternative perspectives. London: Continuum. pp. 7-25.
Harris, A. (2002). School improvement: what’s in it for schools. London: Routledge.
Harris, A., & Muijs, D. (2005). Improving schools through teacher leadership. Berkshire, England: Open University Press.
Hopkins, D. (1996). “Towards a theory for school improvement”, in J. Gray, D. Reynolds and C. Fitz-Gibbon (eds), Merging Tradition: The Future of research on School Effectiveness and School Improvement. London: Cassell.
Hopkins, D. (2001). School improvement for real. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (2011). Collective leadership: The reality of leadership distribution within the school community. Linking Leadership to student learning. Chichester; Jossey Bass Wiley.
Miles, M. B. (1986). “Research findings on the stages of school improvement”, mimeo, Centre for Policy Research, New York.